Egypt is a country in North Africa, on the Mediterranean Sea, and is home to one of the oldest civilizations on earth. The name 'Egypt' comes from the Greek Aegyptoswhich was the Greek pronunciation of the Egyptian name 'Hwt-Ka-Ptah' ("Mansion of the Spirit of Ptah").
The Early Dynastic Period (c. 3150-c. 2613 BCE) saw the unification of the north and south kingdoms of Egypt under the king Menes ( also known as Meni or Manes) of Upper Egypt who conquered Lower Egypt in c. 3118 BCE or c. 3150 BCE. This version of the early history comes from the Aegyptica (History of Egypt) by the ancient historian Manetho who lived in the 3rd century BCE under the Ptolemaic Dynasty(323-30 BCE).
The holy book of the Egyptians about the great invisible Spirit, the Father whose name cannot be uttered, he who came forth from the heights of the perfection, the light of the light of the aeons of light, the light of the silence of the providence and the Father of the silence, the light of the word and the truth, the light of the incorruptions, the infinite light, the radiance from the aeons of light of the unrevealable, unmarked, ageless, un-proclaimable Father, the aeon of the aeons, Autogenes, self-begotten, self-producing, alien, the really true aeon.
Three powers came forth from him; they are the Father, the Mother, (and) the Son, from the living silence, what came forth from the incorruptible Father. These came forth from the silence of the unknown Father.
And from that place, Domedon Doxomedon came forth, the aeon of the aeons and the light of each one of their powers. And thus the Son came forth fourth; the Mother fifth; the Father sixth. He was but unheralded; it is he who is unmarked among all the powers, the glories, and the incorruptions.
From that place, the three powers came forth, the three ogdoads that the Father brings forth in silence with his providence, from his bosom, i.e., the Father, the Mother, (and) the Son.
The <first> ogdoad, because of which the thrice-male child came forth, which is the thought, and the word, and the incorruption, and the eternal life, the will, the mind, and the foreknowledge, the androgynous Father.
The second ogdoad-power, the Mother, the virginal Barbelon, epititioch, memeneaime , who presides over the heaven, karb, the uninterpretable power, the ineffable Mother. She originated from herself; she came forth; she agreed with the Father of the silent silence.
The third ogdoad-power, the Son of the silent silence, and the crown of the silent silence, and the glory of the Father, and the virtue of the Mother, he brings forth from the bosom the seven powers of the great light of the seven voices. And the word is their completion.
These are the three powers, the three ogdoads that the Father, through his providence, brought forth from his bosom. He brought them forth at that place.
Domedon Doxomedon came forth, the aeon of the aeons, and the throne which is in him, and the powers which surround him, the glories and the incorruptions. The Father of the great light who came forth from the silence, he is the great Doxomedon-aeon, in which the thrice- male child rests. And the throne of his glory was established in it, this one on which his unrevealable name is inscribed, on the tablet one is the word, the Father of the light of everything, he who came forth from the silence, while he rests in the silence, he whose name is in an invisible symbol. A hidden, invisible mystery came forth.
The Ancient Egyptians believed that when a pharaoh died he became Osiris, the king of the dead. They believed that for the dead pharaoh to carry out his duties as king of the dead his ka (soul or spirit) which remained with the body, had to be looked after.
In order for the ka to survive, the dead pharaoh’s body was mummified and buried with all the things it would need for the afterlife.
This picture shows a funeral procession. The mummified pharaoh’s body is being carried to the tomb along with all the things that will be placed in the tomb for the ka – statues, furniture, pottery and the pharaoh’s favorite possessions.
The first pyramid to be built was the Step Pyramid at Sakkara (Saqqara). It was built by Imhotep for the king Djoser.
The step pyramid was originally intended to be a large square mustaba (tomb) built over an underground burial chamber but further extensions were added making a six-layered step pyramid 62 metres in height.
Pharaoh’s continued to be buried in pyramids until the end of the Middle Kingdom 1650BC when they began to be buried in tombs in the Valley of the Kings.
About 100 pyramids have been discovered in Egypt but the largest and most well known are the pyramids at Giza, near Cairo.
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